COPING WITH NATURAL DISASTERS: THE ROLE OF LOCAL HEALTH PERSONNEL AND THE COMMUNITY
( By A Working Guide (WHO - OMS, 1989) )

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Annex 3. Nutrition Recommended daily energy and protein intakes for healthy individuals1














































































Proteins (g)



Group


Energy in MJ(kcalth)


Mixed diet with some animal protein


Cereals, possibly with legumes


Approximate proportion of the population in a developing country %


0-1 year


3.4 (820)


14


(breast-feeding, supplemented after 6 mths by weaning foods)


3.0


1-3 years


5.7(1360)


21


27


9.0


4 - 6 years


7.7 (1830)


25


33


8.7


7-9 years


9.2 (2190)


29


37


8.5


10-14 years:






boys


11.7 (2800)


46


58


6.3


girls


10.3 (2450)


40


50


6.2


Male adult (moderately active)


12.6 (3000)


49


62


29.2


Female adult (moderately active)


9.2 (2200)


39


48


26.2


Pregnancy (latter half)


10.7 (2550)


49


63


1.5


Lactation


11.5 (2750)


60


77


1.4


1Adapted from DE VILLE DEGOYET, C., SEAMAN, J. & GEUER, U., The management of nutritional emergencies in large populations. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1978.


If an adequate energy supply is not provided, some protein will be burnt to provide energy and not used for body growth or repair, i.e. it will be used in the same way as carbohydrate or fat, which are much less expensive.

A part (20-40%) of the energy requirement should be supplied from fats or oils, which greatly enhance the palatability of the diet, diminish its bulk (important for younger children) and reduce transport requirements.

Energy requirements vary widely even in normal individuals. They are also increased by physical activity. For example, a 65-kg man requires daily:

6.3 MJ (1500 kcal) when resting in bed day and night.



11.3 MJ (2700 kcalth) if lightly active in the daytime (clerk, office worker).

12.6 MJ (3000 kcalth) if moderately active 8 hours a day.

14.6 MJ (3500 kcalth) if doing heavy work 8 hours a day (labourer).


Much higher intakes are required for the treatment of malnutrition.

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